Alcoholism is the dependent relationship of a person to alcohol in expectation of a rewarding experience. Psychological, cultural, religious and social factors may affect both the patterns of alcohol use and the likelihood that alcohol problems will develop. The manner of the development of alcohol dependence varies from person to person in terms of the duration and pattern of alcohol use, the order of the appearance of symptoms, the extent of physical addiction and complications. Who alcoholism.
Drinking may be a part of student social life. What is important is that each individual recognises how alcohol affects them - as it affects people differently - and takes responsibility for this.
The intake of alcohol among the population in general can be represented as a continuum. At one end are â€œTeetotallersâ€ who never take alcohol. At the other end are â€œDependent Drinkersâ€ who abuse alcohol on a regular basis and expose themselves to the risk of dependence. A crucial fact in developing a harmful dependence is that it presupposes regular/heavy drinking. A prior history of non-problem drinking does not necessarily protect from the possible development of dependence which can be triggered by excessive use in the face of stress and adversity. On the extreme end of this continuum, a person uses alcohol to survive and feel normal rather than feel euphoric. In between the extremes are â€œSocial Drinkersâ€ and â€œHabitual Drinkersâ€. Social Drinkers are those who view consumption as a pleasurable experience. The key features of their pattern of consumption are choice and balance. Their desired end state is relaxation, with mild disinhibition and conviviality. Such drinkers avoid consumption when faced with stress or events requiring optimal performance. Habitual Drinkers are alcohol abusers. They use it to achieve rapid relaxation but they do not necessarily see it as a means to achieving an emotional or personality change. Their drinking may impact on their ability to drive, work and their personal relationships. They can eliminate alcohol use without undue difficulty if required so while they are heavy drinkers they would not be described as alcohol dependent.
What are the basic symptoms of alcohol dependence?
There are a number including:
The person apparently functions normally following consumption of amounts of alcohol that would be toxic for a non-drinker. S/he has a need for a markedly increased amount of alcohol to achieve the desired affect.
Temporary memory loss occurs where the person has been able to function but is unable to recall details of behaviour and this happens on a regular basis.
This is produced by the initial relaxing feeling of alcohol use and is subsequently used as a defence mechanism. It provides a firm boost to the denial system of a dependent drinker as s/he associates drinking with a sense of enjoyment despite adverse consequences in reality.
Emotional Compulsion / Mental Obsession
The person experiences growing anticipation for and preoccupation with the use of alcohol and begins to change their lifestyle which now revolves around alcohol. There is a rigid regularity about use and the activity is allocated priority status.
Who identified alcoholism
Elevated tolerance combined with emotional compulsion lead to loss of choice. The person begins to experience loss of control over alcohol and becomes unable to predict the outcome once s/he begins using.
It is recognised that regardless of a person's psychological and social functioning or exposure to stressors, prior to drinking, the dependence process itself imposes a behavioural and emotional dysfunction. This has the following characteristics:
Alcohol is used in order to provide either avoidance or relief of painful emotion or the experience of euphoria.
The person behaves in ways that violate his or her value system. Formerly central relationships, tasks and interests become secondary to alcohol use.
The conflict between the normal values and behaviour of the person and the new behaviour (e.g. evasion of responsibilities, unwillingness to reciprocate in emotional relationships, manipulation) creates intense emotional pain. Feelings of shame, guilt, self-hatred, powerlessness and lowered self-esteem become chronic and further reinforce the drinking response. As the reaction of others is usually negative, alcohol becomes the preferred method of restoring emotional normality and the person increasingly alienates his or her support system. At this stage the alcohol dependent person experiences a deterioration of his or her health, emotional stability and interpersonal relationships and even a loss of the desire to live.
The person is unconsciously motivated to use several psychological defence mechanisms in order to resolve conflict. In essence, the conflict is not really resolved but removed from conscious awareness. These defences serve two primary purposes:
To protect the addiction, by denying, blaming, rationalising, attacking. The person protects his/her relationship with alcohol from any external threat.
To protect his or her self-esteem, the person uses repression, projection and displacement.
This loss of insight becomes a growing delusion, or sense of being â€œout of touch with realityâ€. It accounts for the person's distorted perception, impaired judgement and inability to recognise the addiction. It also explains why an alcohol dependent person is so unlikely to seek help spontaneously.
Additional signs of problematic alcohol use are tardiness and absenteeism at work, lying, mood swings, alcoholic breath, slurred speech, poor coordination, neglect of physical appearance, aggression, legal problems (including traffic violations, fighting, and disorderly conduct), and impairment in attention or short term memory.
If someone close to you has an alcoholic problemâ€¦
Eliminate any sense of personal responsibility for the causation of the problem and accept your powerlessness to stop his/her excessive drinking. Allow him or her to take responsibility for his or her own actions.
See yourself as an important source of influence in the life of the person with the problem. By stopping attempts to control him/her, you can regain influence.
Eliminate hopelessness: change is possible with some effort from all sides.
Refuse to protect the addiction through elimination false loyalty to the dependent person. You can be most effective if you take care of yourself and work towards getting him or her into treatment.
Stop hiding the problem from family and friends out of a sense of loyalty to the dependent person, especially if you value their support.
Take emotional support for yourself.
Optimal treatment takes into consideration both the psychological dynamics and the physiological factors. Therapy targets three main areas:
Often other family members also need to be involved in the therapy process. During the first twelve months after detoxification, the individual is particularly vulnerable to having a relapse.
The following reading may be helpful:
Beattie, M (1987) Co-Dependent no more New York: Hazelden
Johnson, V (1990) I'll quit tomorrow New York: Harper and Row
Ward, Y (1983) A bottle in the cupboard Dublin: Attic Press
Remember The Counselling and Personal Development Service is here to help - so if you need us, please phone 700 5165 or email
Complied by Vicky Panoutsakopoulou (DCU Counselling Service) and Catherine Bolger (TCD Counselling Service). Edited by Catherine Breathnach.